If you want to know what men really thought of fashion in the roaring twenties, all you have to do is look at the history of men’s 1920s suits. It is the one item of clothing every man wore on a daily basis.
The rich had closets full of suits of every style, color, and material, while the working poor may have had only one good suit to wear to church on Sunday and mismatched suit pieces to wear during the week.
1920s Men’s Suit Styles
The 1920s fashion suit is one that is divided into not one but two styles that span the decade. The first few years had men in narrow fitting “jazz” suits and slightly less slender lounge suits, while the rest of the decade had men wearing wide fitting suits. By 1925 the transition from slim to wide was complete.
The Jazz Suit
When men returned from WW1 they put put on their slim pre-war suits and went about their new/old life. The only problem was that they were now in much better physical condition and their old suits fit even more snugly. Between 1918 and 1923 the Jazz Suit was described as “sausage casing” for young men.
Older men as well as most young men who didn’t follow extreme fashions, were still wearing the somewhat baggy styles of the late 1900s, although they had been slimmed down during the war as shortages of fabric and dye limited production.
The Jazz Suit jacket was cinched by a raised waist, a military style waist seam or three-quarter back belt and a skirt that was flared by a 12 inch long center vent at the back. Many had deep rolled shawl collars, tight pinched shoulders, and one to three buttons placed close together. Double-breasted models also had four closely placed buttons positioned above the natural waist.
1920s suits often had half belts along the back, which was a carryover from the military look in the teen years. They were usually made for boys, teens, young men, or “sport” model suits. Pleats, yokes, vents and gathers made even more interesting suit back details.
The Jazz suit trousers were skinny as a pipe, worn short to the slightly above the ankle. They rose high on the waist with a flat, slim fit over the hips and down the legs. Cuffs were optional but most trendy young men added them while older men preferred plain hems.
The matching waistcoat or vest had four to five buttons with four welt pockets and deep points. They did not have collars since adding them would have added bulk to the chest.
Jazz suit colors were masculine and dark, such as navy blue, medium grey, and soft brown. Overall, the colors were dull and earthy as they had been since before the first World War. Medium blue was the brightest color that grew in popularity throughout the 1920s as a compromise between old and new fashions.
In the summer, lighter wool suits, flannel suits, duck suits (canvas) and linen suits were marketed as being lighter and breathable. Colors were light white, grey, ivory, tan, green and blue-grey.
Early 1920s men’s suits were made of wool, mohair, tweed or corduroy- very thick material compared to today’s lighter suiting. It is no wonder men wanted softer, looser, lighter clothing after being stuffed into stiff, heavy suits for over a century.
With men returning from war in better physical shape than ever, the latest suit was draped to accentuate the lean and muscular physique. The very slim “jazz suit” disappeared after 1923. The natural body shape was the preferred fashion for most of the 1920s.
The English Suit
Most men’s fashion of the roaring twenties came from Britain. Even Paris, the capital of fashion, turned to Britain for menswear inspiration, especially the dapperly dressed prince of Wales.
Classy, refined, men of good taste shopped on Saville Row, where master tailors measured and handcrafted each suit to the owner. Men of means in the USA ordered suits by the dozens from these tailors for every season and with every changing trend in fashion.
In place of the Jazz suit, men turned to a natural shoulder suit, that was still slim looking, but not nearly as comical. A shorter jacket accentuated a built torso and long legs. Older wealthy men continued to shop in London on Saville Row but were looking for an updated suit that was more masculine and fitting for a mature body. The answer was the British lounge suit.
“The English look ” that reached peak popularity in 1924, had 3 1/2 inch wide lapels rolled to the top button, natural shaped shoulders, a hip length straight-fitting loose single breasted jacket, two large pockets, and 1 to 4 buttons closed at all times. Trousers reached 17 1/2 inches wide at the hem. Many had pleats but Americans still clung to the flat font trouser with center press for most of the decade.
After 1924 the English look looked more British with a tighter waist and narrow hips. American’s like this shape more since it emphasized the broad shoulders of an athletic man.
The prince of Wales sported a double breasted grey flannel suit with 3 1/2 inch wide lapels in white chalk stripes on his American tour in 1923 and thus fashionable men copied his look. Chalk stripes as well as glen plaid because his two pattern contributions to the American consumer.
A single or double-breasted 4 to 6 button vest matched the suit with one or two slit pockets for a pocket watch on either side. The double breasted 4 button vest with flap pockets was preferred by traditional men. Points on the vest could be small or pronounced as well as the occasional straight hem.
Even if the man wore a wristwatch, having a vest without a pocket watch pocket was shoddy.
Conservative American Suits
While the British liked their shapely suits, the stubborn Americans demanded a more relaxed fit. 1920s Conservative American suits were cut straight from shoulder to jacket hem but with a slight curve at the waist, hanging a tad longer, with roomier sleeves and broad shoulders. The shaping of the jacket was made in the back instead of taking in the side seams.
“We are making them now. The shoulders are considerably wider; chest effects are fuller; buttons and pockets are higher; coats are snug at the hips and suggest height” said a 1925 Schaffner and Marx suit ad.
Suits jackets had growing lapels in the 1920s. By the end of the decade it wasn’t uncommon to have 3 and 3/4 inch wide lapels with notch shapes. Peak lapels and double breasted jackets were for the more flamboyant men.
Suit pants favored the natural leg, too, which was about 17.5 inches wide at the cuff (cuffs were 2- 3 inches wide) with very high waists, a button crotch, large pockets, a single crease down the center, and hems that hung around the mid-ankle (revealing socks). It was a classic pant- not too wide and not too narrow.
Some trousers had pleated fronts (inverted pleat) and wide legs that tapered slowly to the ankle. Men had the option to cuff or not cuff pant legs. Cuffed trousers stopped at the ankle while the plain hem leg was slightly longer.
Suit colors were conservative, but with more patterns such as thin stripes, windowpane and checks. The suits colors were a bit bland for the mature man- dark brown, medium grey, dark or navy blue, and black. For young men and summer fabrics blue-grey, grey-blue, medium brown, grey and tan were popular.
Dress shirts were white in Britain but striped in America, with colorful horizontal wide striped ties, cap toe Oxford shoes, and felt hats such as the Homburg or Fedora. The look was only conservative compared to the young men’s Ivy League look, but compared to the previous decade it was downright rebellious.
The Ivy League / Cake Eaters Suits
After 1924, men, who were mostly young and middle-class Americans, preferred a totally new style that was even more casual and flashy than their father’s look. They acquired the “cake eaters” name because these new young kids frequented tea dances where colorful tea cakes were served.
The style began at Oxford University and other Ivy League schools in Britain. Well-to-do young American students brought back the style to the USA, where it was eagerly adopted by the majority of young affluent men.
The Ivy League look (also called a drape cut or blade cut) was of a slimmer fitting, single-breasted jacket with slightly narrower notch lapels (2.75 inches), a longer jacket (30.5 inches), 2-3 buttons fasted high on the sternum, and large patch pockets placed low on the front sides. Materials were still very heavy wool or worsted wool, weighing in around 15 oz to the yard.
In 1925 a newer look replaced narrow lapels. The suit jacket was about 40 inches long with rounded front skirt and buttons and pockets placed low. Sleeves were full and lapels board and curvy. Most jackets did not have vents. The vest were 6 button that came up high on the chest. Trousers were wide-cut straight from hip to shoe with a flat front. It was a trendy style, not one to take well with the masses.
The British loved their tweed suits, the Americans not so much. Diagonal tweed suits had a short-lived trend with lighter shades, called “ice cream suits.” Light tans, creams, blue-greys, grey-blues, and pinks in pinstripes were made into 3-piece suits and sport coats. They dirtied too easily, however, and lost favor quickly. Instead worsted wool pinstripes in medium tone colors became common.
What really caused the dramatic difference between conservative and ivy league style was the pants. The young Brits claimed they were widening their pants back to the Victorian age, when men’s trousers fit looser than in the snug Edwardian teen years. While this is true, they kept on widening pant legs until they formed the “Oxford bag,” an extremely wide leg pant that conveniently fit over plus four knickers (that were banned at school).
These baggy trousers were 18 to 22 inches wide but could go up to 40 inches wide at the cuff. An invert pleated at the waist for an even fuller appearance. There was only a light taper from knee to ankle, ending at a 2-3 inch cuff that broke just at the instep so as not to break the front leg crease.
Wide leg pants roared into fashion in the mid ’20s and stayed till the ’50s, when trousers returned to the conservative width. The 40-inch baggy pant was rare, but overall trousers were wider in the ’20s for all who adopted the Ivy league style.
Non-college kids and middle-class Americans in particular loved the looser, softer Ivy league style. The 3 piece suit came with a matching 6 button vest either with notch lapels or no lapels and 2-4 pockets. There was also a pocketless vest for those young men who preferred to wear a wristwatch instead of an old fashioned pocket watch.
In the late 1920s, there was also an explosion of many new styles of vests in contrasting colors and prints. Double-breasted, U shaped, and shawl collar vests made them a focal point under opened suit jackets.
In the ad above, a grey plaid vest paired with a grey striped suit and a brown suit was complemented by a grey and white check double-breasted vest. Less extreme examples include a dark grey suit with a light grey vest or a brown suit with a tan vest.
The working classes wore whatever vest they could afford to buy second hand, often in mismatched colors. In this regard, the poor were leading the fashion trends just as much as the rich.
Sportscoats and Summer Suits
In the 1920s, wool flannel was often used in men’s summer suits, although it wasn’t very cool to wear. The very posh wore white flannel trousers with a navy blue flannel jacket at seaside resorts, while cruising across the ocean, yachting, or to attend upper-class sporting events.
Pure white was difficult to keep clean, so most middle-class men choose ivory, oatmeal or putty-colored flannel trousers instead.
They could also choose the new all-cotton “tub” suit which could be washed at home in the washing tub and hung to dry. Colors broadened to light grey, taupe, and tan as well as darker blue, green and brown.
The coolest fabric was linen, followed by a cotton-mohair blend renamed Palm Beach cloth after the resort town of Palm Beach, Florida. They came in white or natural colors. Most other summer fabric were made of Fresco, a porous, loosely woven wool.
Duck Suits made of a cotton canvas duck cloth was another affordable option for working classes although it too was adopted by upper class men for sports and leisure. Duck cloth could be brown, olive, khaki or white. It was a common fabric used in very hot humid climates.
Suits for Black Men
Were there different suits for men of color? This is a common question I receive and one which is tricky to answer. Most fashion history is written from an upper-class white perspective with clothing retailers marketing to whites only, although mail-order catalogs were used by all races. For the most part, American black men wore the same suits as white counterparts. Black men dressed as well as they could afford, often learning to sew and tailor their own clothing, and making minor adjustments to designs that reflected their personality.
Working-class men wore work clothes and uniforms six days a week, giving little need to dress up except to church on Sundays or Saturday night strolls in big cities. When black men did dress up in suits, they were exceptionally fine, often flashy, and much more colorful than conservative white men.
African American men took the fashion of upper-class white men and improved it with color and fit. In 1927, a young man in Chicago was seen strolling in a pearl grey hat, spotless gray suit, and a vivid pink and blue moire scarf. Another young man was immaculately dressed with a hatband of blue and white, shoes that were patent leather with white tops, and a flowered waistcoat. Stetson hats were the best brand to wear, angled to one side. Tweed or striped suits fit perfectly with pants that were extra tight in the early years and extra wide in the later years.
Some reporters called these flashy dressers peacocks or pimps and shamed them for spending their last dime on new clothes, gold jewelry, and diamond-studded teeth like the popular jazzman, Willie “The Lion” Smith. The more conservative pianist Earl Hines looked dapper in a bowler hat, tuxedo, Chesterfield overcoat, walking stick, and coiffed hairstyle. Stylish, expensive, and professional. Musicians were often selected to play at jazz clubs based on what they wore. Being impeccably dressed meant getting a gig that afforded the next wardrobe purchase — or not, and pawning it for half price the following week.
In some moderate communities, men might have worn pants and jackets that were mismatched with brightly colored shirts, scarves, ties, and shoes. Red, yellow, light green, light blue, and candy pink shirts were favorite colors. Even suspenders were “loud” and designed to be seen, not hidden, under vests.
Of course, not every African American man dressed flashy. The wealthier he was or when in the presence of white people, the greater the effort to blend in by wearing conservative suits with dark red, green, black and white accessories. College students, for example, were usually more dressed up but conservative, than the white students.
A modern-day vintage peacock is Dandy Wellington whose 20s-40s inspired style is impeccable.
1920s Suits on TV
If you really want to see 1920s men’s suits in action, you should watch HBO’s Boardwalk Empire. The costume designer had suit fabrics recreated from original ’20s garments and then used authentic patterns from the era to produce several of each suit worn in the show. The historical accuracy brings the show to life, as well as giving us an excellent reference for menswear in the early to mid ’20s.
Peaky Blinders is another popular TV show with many men’s suits to admire, although not as accurately as Boardwalk Empire. See this article on creating a Peaky Blinders outfit.
The last two seasons of Downton Abbey were also set in the mid-1920s and have some British upper-class men’s fashions to enjoy.
The Great Gatsby movie (2013) is hardly accurate to the era, but it does show you what it looks like to adapt new clothing into an inspired ’20s style. The original 1970s The Great Gatsby movie is a little more accurate.
1920s Men’s Evening Suits
Learn about men’s tuxedos, wedding suits and formal morning suits in this article.
Choosing a 1920s Suit for You
Classic men’s suits will lack some of the details that make 1920s men’s suits unique but if you focus on the cut, color, and pattern you can achieve a similar look to the era at half the cost.
First, you must decide if you want an early ’20s slim suit or late ’20s wide suit. The early 20s look mimics the current slim fit trend today, so as long as you don’t go for the ultra slim fit/stretch skinny fit suits, you will not be too far off.
The main difference is in the modern low rise of the pants and the lower V opening of the jacket. I have good luck finding classic fit suits at Brooks Brothers, Paul Fredrick, and sometimes Perry Ellis.
For a wide fit suit, you will need to look at imported Italian suits or urban men’s fashion suits (brand Stacy Adams and similar). They tend to look more “gangster” than classic fit suits, especially in dark colors and wide stripes. Online MensUSA, MensItaly and Stacy Adams will have some good options. Sometimes you can find them on Amazon too.
Colors/Textures of 1920s suits are what gives them the vintage look. I look for wide or thin stripes, windowpane, plaid, checks, tweed or textured wool. Choose navy blue, medium blue, dark to light tan, dark or light grey and medium or light green. Avoid solid black, skinny lapels, and pants that are too short.
In summer, a good seersucker or linen blend suit is very cool and comfortable.
Finally, don’t be afraid of color. Choose accessories that do not match the suit. Brown or black shoes go with all suit colors. Hat colors can be any shade of brown, grey, blue, green, tan, cream or black. Shirts should have some color as well as a brightly colored tie. If color scares you, then choose shades of the same color family- i.e. navy blue suit, light blue shirt, medium blue tie, etc.
Here are some of the suits Oscar has worn to 1920s events:
Shop 1920s inspired men’s suits
These suits were chosen for either the cut/fit or the color/pattern that closely resembles vintage 1920s men’s suits. Wearing a suit with the right hat, shoes, and accessories will instantly take you back in time.
Debbie Sessions has been teaching fashion history and helping people dress for vintage themed events since 2009. She has turned a hobby into VintageDancer.com with hundreds of well researched articles and hand picked links to vintage inspired clothing online. She aims to make dressing accurately (or not) an affordable option for all. Oh, and she dances too.